Cause of Tissue Damage
Traumatic injuries can be caused by physical or chemical insults (Box4-1). Physicalmeans of producing tissue damage include incision or crushing, extremes of temperature or irradiation, desiccation, and obstruction of arterial inflow or venous outflow. Chemicals ableto cause injury
include those with unphysiologic pH or tonicity, those that disrupt protein integrity,and those that cause ischemia by producing vascular constriction or thrombosis.