Although many of the procedures presented in this chapterappear relatively straightforward, endodontic surgery is often complex and difficult to perform. Cliniciansshould carefully Consider the problems before undertaking such surgeries.

Determining the Cause of Root
Canal Treatment Failure Two steps are critical to success, particularly if surgery is being considered: (1) identification of the cause of faililre
and (2) design of the treatment plan. Frequently, surgery is not the best choice but when necessary must be done appropriately. A specialist is better able to identify these causes and approach their resolution. If the cause of the failure cannot be identifieb, these cases must be considered for referral.

Surgical Dlfflcultfes

In summary, most of the procedures discussed in this chapter require greater training and experience than are provided in an undergraduate dental education program. If the clinician has not had additional postgraduate training and experience, referral must be considered.


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