Augmentation grafting adds strength, to an extremely deficient mandible and improves the height and contour of the available bone for implant placement on denture-bearing areas. Sources of graft ma erial include
autogenous or allogeneic bone and alloplastic materials.Historically, autogenous bone has been the most biologically acceptable material used in mandibular augmentation. Disadvantages of the use of autogenous bone
include the need for donor-site surgery and extensive resorption after grafting. The use of allogeneic bone eliminates the need for a second surgical site and has been shown to be somewhat useful in augmenting small areas of concavity in the posterior mandible.!” However, when used for large augmentations, this material often results in dehiscence o f the graft and resorption similar to that of autogenous bone. During the 1980s and early 1990s, HA alloplastic materials became popular for use in bony
augmentation of the maxilla and mandible. The material is readily available, eliminates the need for donor-site Surgery, and has been shown to improve long-term maintenance of height and contour. Several problems, including
tissue dehiscence, migration of the HA, and neurosensory disturbance, have resulted in less frequent use of this material. The increased popularity of implants has renewed enthusiasm for use of autogenous bone grafts in areas augmented for placement of implants.