IMPACT OF SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS Medical Assignment Help

IMPACT OF SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS

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Contents

Developing the research questions 2

Research Question 2

Introduction 2

Relation with Biology 3

Risk Assessment 3

Environmental and Ethical Consideration 3

Methods 4

Nature of the research 4

Type of research 4

Target Population 4

Sampling Method 5

Sample size 5

Researcher’s role: 5

Data Gathering 5

Data Analysis 5

Results and Analysis 6

Data 6

Results 7

Cancer Patients 7

Death from Cancer 8

Conclusion 9

Evaluation 9

References 10

 

Developing the research questions

Research Question

  • Understand the impact of smoking on teenagers in developing cancer
  • To gauge a relationship between frequency of smoking and development of disease
  • To create a link between ageing smoking and cancer.

Introduction

Tobacco is considered as one of the biggest factors for causing cancer and other diseases. Smoking has been significantly increasing throughout the years as more people are being engaged in smoking especially the teenagers. It is estimated that around 1.1 billion of people are smoking tobacco and 5 million deaths per year occur mainly due to smoking-related illness. It is shown that most of the smoking was higher in males rather than in females. The most common tobacco smokers are usually the least-educated people (Furrukh, 2013).

Smoking causes a negative impact on the various parts of the body which are lungs, mouth, throat, trachea, stomach, kidney and many other parts of the body. The higher the person smokes tobacco a day, the more chances are that he would get cancer. Most of the chronic diseases such as heart attacks and strokes are usually caused by smoking tobacco and also considered a major cause of death.

The reasons as for why people develop cancer in their body are due to the smoke damages the blood cells as these are important for maintaining blood flow in the body.  Once these blood cells are damaged they are no longer able to function properly which blocks the blood flow from the heart. The chemical in the tobacco causes the platelets of the blood to form together and further blood clots are formed. This interferes with the body’s ability for repairing the artery leading to heart attack and other chronic diseases.

Relation with Biology

Smoking is related to biology as the nicotine causes addiction to the people causing difficulty to stop smoking. Smoking leads to a various negative impact on the body among other biological consequences. Tobacco has around 7,000 chemicals which leads to many types of cancer along with other heart diseases. The reasons as to why Smoking tobacco is related to biology is due to the addiction of nicotine as the brain gives the signal to the body that it could not survive without smoking.

Risk Assessment

The research which would be carried out is the secondary data basis in which the data would be taken from the past researches which had been carried out. The risks involved in this research are the following:

  • The Data which would be analyzed and gathered might not be of the current conditions.
  • The Secondary research would not involve collecting data from the individuals personally.
  • The data may not be accurate for determining the impact of smoking on teenager’s health.

Environmental and Ethical Consideration

  • Smoking causes damage to the country’s environment.
  • It leads to second-hand smoking in which it affects the lives of the other people who do not smoke.
  • Damage to the environment, property and lives of the people caused by fire which is sometimes started by smoking.

Methods

Nature of the research

Since the study’s purpose is to gauge the different instruments for understanding the impact of smoking among teenagers, the quantitative method of gathering data will be used, making the nature of research quantitative (S.F.M.Chastin, 2010). In doing so, the secondary data gathering technique will be adopted to take the insight from the other research which is related to teenagers engaged in smoking from the internet (Caspersen, 1986).

Type of research

The current research paper will be conducted using secondary research. Since a lot of work has been done primarily on the particular topic from a different perspective, these studies will help us in developing the fundamentals of our research regarding the impact of smoking on teenagers (Baecke, 1982).

Target Population

The target population for the research will be the teenagers who are engaged in smoking and the teens who are admitted to hospital for having cancer caused by smoking. Also, the data available in journals will be targeted for the secondary research from the internet and the articles which are related to cancer and smoking.

Sampling Method

During the current research study, the data collection tool used for collecting the data was through the website for reaching the desired outcome for data sampling. It shows that data sampling has eliminated the biases from its sample by designing it in such a way that also makes the asymmetries disappear from the sampling data.

Sample size

By taking into consideration the scope and limitations of the research, the sample size in this study are the people affected with cancer from smoking for the year from 2017. Moreover, balance curve is balanced in the current sample size of the research by getting the authentic and valid data sets (American Cancer Society, 2017).

Researcher’s role:

As a researcher, my role would be to conduct and collect the data from the secondary sources and further analyze the data for determining if smoking is generally the main cause for resulting in lung cancer and other diseases.  

Data Gathering

The techniques which have been used for collecting the data on the teenagers who are engaged in smoking are the secondary data. The secondary data would be collected by looking and analyzing the past researchers related to this study from the internet sources and articles about current cancer and smoking rates.  

Data Analysis

In order to compare the validity to measure the impact of smoking on the teenagers, we would analyze the data by using different types of descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation.  This would help in determining the impact of smoking which causes cancer to the  teenagers.

Results and Analysis

 

Data

Cancer Patients  
Smokers Diseases Male (18 – 25) Female (18 – 25) Overall Cancer Patients
  300,000 Lung    116,990                    105,510                                    222,500
  150,000 Colon      71,420                       64,010                                    135,430
  130,000 Urinary      60,490                       61,380                                    121,870
  120,000 Melanoma      52,170                       42,470                                       94,640
  100,000 Kidney & renal      40,610                       34,940                                       75,550
    90,000 Non-Hodgkin      40,080                       32,160                                       72,240
    80,000 Leukemia      36,290                       25,840                                       62,130
    70,000 Oral cavity      35,720                       25,700                                       61,420
    60,000 Liver & intrahepatic      29,200                       23,380                                       52,580

 

Death from Cancer  
Smokers Diseases Male (18 – 25) Female (18 – 25) Overall Death
  300,000 Lung                     84,590                       71,280                155,870
  150,000 Colon                     27,150                       40,610                  67,760
  130,000 Urinary                     26,730                       23,110                  49,840
  120,000 Melanoma                     22,300                       20,790                  43,090
  100,000 Kidney & renal                     19,610                       14,080                  33,690
    90,000 Non-Hodgkin                     14,300                       10,920                  25,220
    80,000 Leukemia                     12,720                       10,200                  22,920
    70,000 Oral cavity                     12,240                         9,310                  21,550
    60,000 Liver & intrahepatic                     11,450                         8,690                  20,140

 

Results

Cancer Patients

Male Female Overall
           
Mean 45747.5 Mean 38735 Mean 84482.5
Standard Error 5070.919 Standard Error 5661.86 Standard Error 10670.05
Median 40345 Median 33550 Median 73895
Standard Deviation 14342.73 Standard Deviation 16014.16 Standard Deviation 30179.46
Sample Variance 2.06E+08 Sample Variance 2.56E+08 Sample Variance 9.11E+08
Kurtosis -0.21599 Kurtosis -0.80542 Kurtosis -0.64334
Skewness 0.883556 Skewness 0.904055 Skewness 0.880744
Range 42220 Range 40630 Range 82850
Minimum 29200 Minimum 23380 Minimum 52580
Maximum 71420 Maximum 64010 Maximum 135430
Sum 365980 Sum 309880 Sum 675860
Count 8 Count 8 Count 8

 

The average of the male patients who are suffering from cancer are around 45,747.5 and it is varying at the rate of around 14342.72 people and the range of males who are suffering from cancer are minimum 23,200 and the maximum is 71,420. The average of the female patients who are suffering from cancer are around 38,735 and it is varying at the rate of around 16,014 people and the range of females who are suffering from cancer are minimum 23,380 and the maximum is 64,010.

Death from Cancer

Male Female Overall
           
Mean 18312.5 Mean 17213.75 Mean 35526.25
Standard Error 2306.376061 Standard Error 3846.816373 Standard Error 5978.666
Median 16955 Median 12500 Median 29455
Standard Deviation 6523.416611 Standard Deviation 10880.43977 Standard Deviation 16910.22
Sample Variance 42554964.29 Sample Variance 118383969.6 Sample Variance 2.86E+08
Kurtosis -1.83463574 Kurtosis 2.788263721 Kurtosis 0.364418
Skewness 0.388085435 Skewness 1.673872684 Skewness 1.078512
Range 15700 Range 31920 Range 47620
Minimum 11450 Minimum 8690 Minimum 20140
Maximum 27150 Maximum 40610 Maximum 67760
Sum 146500 Sum 137710 Sum 284210
Count 8 Count 8 Count 8

 

The average of the male patients who died from cancer are around 18,312.5 and it is varying at the rate of around 6523.41 people and the range of males who are dying from cancer are minimum 15,700 and the maximum is 27,150. The average of the female patients who are dying from cancer are around 17,213.75 and it is varying at the rate of around 3846.81 people and the range of females who are dying from cancer are minimum 8690 and the maximum is 40610.

Conclusion

After looking at the results, it was found that the most of the teenagers who are affected by cancer due to heavy smoking are the males. The main reasons are that males are mostly engaged in smoking and due to heavy smoking per day, they usually are affected by the diseases such as lung disease and colon disease. After analyzing the data, it was found out that the people which mostly died of cancer caused by smoking were the males and the main disease of their death was lung cancer.

The above analysis has helped in answering the research question in which it helped us in understanding the impact of smoking on teenagers in developing cancer, understanding a relationship between the frequency of smoking and development of diseases and also determining a strong relationship between smoking and cancer.

Evaluation

The results which have been founded after gathering the data and analyzing that the average of the male people who died from cancer was around 18,312.5 who were smoking regularly. The average of the female people who died from cancer was around 17,213.5 which were less than males. The data was taken from the teenagers who were between the ages of 18 – 25 both male and female.

References

American Cancer Society. (2017). Cancer Facts and Figures 2017.

Baecke, J. A. (1982). A short questionnaire for the measurement of habitual physical activity in epidemiological studies. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 936-942.

Caspersen, C. J. (1986). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 126–131.

F.Sallis, J. ( 2009). Measuring Physical Activity Environments: A Brief History. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, S86-S92.

Furrukh, M. (2013). Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 345 – 358.

S.F.M.Chastin. (2010). Methods for the objective measure, quantification and analysis of sedentary behaviour and inactivity. Journal of Science Direct, 82-86.

Trost, S. G. (2001). Objective Measurement of Physical Activity in Youth: Current Issues, Future Directions. Exercise & Sport Sciences Reviews, 32-36.

 

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