IMPACT OF SMOKING AMONG TEENAGERS
Developing the research questions
- Understand the impact of smoking on teenagers in developing cancer
- To gauge a relationship between frequency of smoking and development of disease
- To create a link between ageing smoking and cancer.
Tobacco is considered as one of the biggest factors for causing cancer and other diseases. Smoking has been significantly increasing throughout the years as more people are being engaged in smoking especially the teenagers. It is estimated that around 1.1 billion of people are smoking tobacco and 5 million deaths per year occur mainly due to smoking-related illness. It is shown that most of the smoking was higher in males rather than in females. The most common tobacco smokers are usually the least-educated people (Furrukh, 2013).
Smoking causes a negative impact on the various parts of the body which are lungs, mouth, throat, trachea, stomach, kidney and many other parts of the body. The higher the person smokes tobacco a day, the more chances are that he would get cancer. Most of the chronic diseases such as heart attacks and strokes are usually caused by smoking tobacco and also considered a major cause of death.
The reasons as for why people develop cancer in their body are due to the smoke damages the blood cells as these are important for maintaining blood flow in the body. Once these blood cells are damaged they are no longer able to function properly which blocks the blood flow from the heart. The chemical in the tobacco causes the platelets of the blood to form together and further blood clots are formed. This interferes with the body’s ability for repairing the artery leading to heart attack and other chronic diseases.
Relation with Biology
Smoking is related to biology as the nicotine causes addiction to the people causing difficulty to stop smoking. Smoking leads to a various negative impact on the body among other biological consequences. Tobacco has around 7,000 chemicals which leads to many types of cancer along with other heart diseases. The reasons as to why Smoking tobacco is related to biology is due to the addiction of nicotine as the brain gives the signal to the body that it could not survive without smoking.
The research which would be carried out is the secondary data basis in which the data would be taken from the past researches which had been carried out. The risks involved in this research are the following:
- The Data which would be analyzed and gathered might not be of the current conditions.
- The Secondary research would not involve collecting data from the individuals personally.
- The data may not be accurate for determining the impact of smoking on teenager’s health.
Environmental and Ethical Consideration
- Smoking causes damage to the country’s environment.
- It leads to second-hand smoking in which it affects the lives of the other people who do not smoke.
- Damage to the environment, property and lives of the people caused by fire which is sometimes started by smoking.
Nature of the research
Since the study’s purpose is to gauge the different instruments for understanding the impact of smoking among teenagers, the quantitative method of gathering data will be used, making the nature of research quantitative (S.F.M.Chastin, 2010). In doing so, the secondary data gathering technique will be adopted to take the insight from the other research which is related to teenagers engaged in smoking from the internet (Caspersen, 1986).
Type of research
The current research paper will be conducted using secondary research. Since a lot of work has been done primarily on the particular topic from a different perspective, these studies will help us in developing the fundamentals of our research regarding the impact of smoking on teenagers (Baecke, 1982).
The target population for the research will be the teenagers who are engaged in smoking and the teens who are admitted to hospital for having cancer caused by smoking. Also, the data available in journals will be targeted for the secondary research from the internet and the articles which are related to cancer and smoking.
During the current research study, the data collection tool used for collecting the data was through the website for reaching the desired outcome for data sampling. It shows that data sampling has eliminated the biases from its sample by designing it in such a way that also makes the asymmetries disappear from the sampling data.
By taking into consideration the scope and limitations of the research, the sample size in this study are the people affected with cancer from smoking for the year from 2017. Moreover, balance curve is balanced in the current sample size of the research by getting the authentic and valid data sets (American Cancer Society, 2017).
As a researcher, my role would be to conduct and collect the data from the secondary sources and further analyze the data for determining if smoking is generally the main cause for resulting in lung cancer and other diseases.
The techniques which have been used for collecting the data on the teenagers who are engaged in smoking are the secondary data. The secondary data would be collected by looking and analyzing the past researchers related to this study from the internet sources and articles about current cancer and smoking rates.
In order to compare the validity to measure the impact of smoking on the teenagers, we would analyze the data by using different types of descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation. This would help in determining the impact of smoking which causes cancer to the teenagers.
Results and Analysis
|Smokers||Diseases||Male (18 – 25)||Female (18 – 25)||Overall Cancer Patients|
|100,000||Kidney & renal||40,610||34,940||75,550|
|60,000||Liver & intrahepatic||29,200||23,380||52,580|
|Death from Cancer|
|Smokers||Diseases||Male (18 – 25)||Female (18 – 25)||Overall Death|
|100,000||Kidney & renal||19,610||14,080||33,690|
|60,000||Liver & intrahepatic||11,450||8,690||20,140|
|Standard Error||5070.919||Standard Error||5661.86||Standard Error||10670.05|
|Standard Deviation||14342.73||Standard Deviation||16014.16||Standard Deviation||30179.46|
|Sample Variance||2.06E+08||Sample Variance||2.56E+08||Sample Variance||9.11E+08|
The average of the male patients who are suffering from cancer are around 45,747.5 and it is varying at the rate of around 14342.72 people and the range of males who are suffering from cancer are minimum 23,200 and the maximum is 71,420. The average of the female patients who are suffering from cancer are around 38,735 and it is varying at the rate of around 16,014 people and the range of females who are suffering from cancer are minimum 23,380 and the maximum is 64,010.
Death from Cancer
|Standard Error||2306.376061||Standard Error||3846.816373||Standard Error||5978.666|
|Standard Deviation||6523.416611||Standard Deviation||10880.43977||Standard Deviation||16910.22|
|Sample Variance||42554964.29||Sample Variance||118383969.6||Sample Variance||2.86E+08|
The average of the male patients who died from cancer are around 18,312.5 and it is varying at the rate of around 6523.41 people and the range of males who are dying from cancer are minimum 15,700 and the maximum is 27,150. The average of the female patients who are dying from cancer are around 17,213.75 and it is varying at the rate of around 3846.81 people and the range of females who are dying from cancer are minimum 8690 and the maximum is 40610.
After looking at the results, it was found that the most of the teenagers who are affected by cancer due to heavy smoking are the males. The main reasons are that males are mostly engaged in smoking and due to heavy smoking per day, they usually are affected by the diseases such as lung disease and colon disease. After analyzing the data, it was found out that the people which mostly died of cancer caused by smoking were the males and the main disease of their death was lung cancer.
The above analysis has helped in answering the research question in which it helped us in understanding the impact of smoking on teenagers in developing cancer, understanding a relationship between the frequency of smoking and development of diseases and also determining a strong relationship between smoking and cancer.
The results which have been founded after gathering the data and analyzing that the average of the male people who died from cancer was around 18,312.5 who were smoking regularly. The average of the female people who died from cancer was around 17,213.5 which were less than males. The data was taken from the teenagers who were between the ages of 18 – 25 both male and female.
American Cancer Society. (2017). Cancer Facts and Figures 2017.
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Furrukh, M. (2013). Tobacco Smoking and Lung Cancer. Sultan Qaboos University Medical Journal, 345 – 358.
S.F.M.Chastin. (2010). Methods for the objective measure, quantification and analysis of sedentary behaviour and inactivity. Journal of Science Direct, 82-86.
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