Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Medical Assignment Help

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) Assignment Help

Chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML) is a type of cancer that begins inside bone marrow. The soft tissue in the middle of bones helps form all blood cells.CML causes an uncontrolled development of immature cells that make a particular kind of white blood cell called myeloid cells. The diseased cells develop in blood and the bone marrow.

Chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) also called as chronic myelogenous leukemia, is a form of cancer that begins in particular blood-forming cells of the bone marrow. In CML, a genetic change occurs in an early (immature) variant of myeloid cells. This change forms an abnormal gene called BCR. The leukemia cells divide and grow, building up in the bone marrow and spilling over into the blood. In different portions of the entire body such as spleen, the cells may also settle in time. CML is a reasonably slow growing leukemia. It may shift into a fast growing acute leukemia that is difficult to take care of.

Infrequently, it appears in kids. However, most instances of CML appear in adults. Generally, the treatment is the same as for adults.

Leukemia is-a cancer that begins in the blood-forming cells of the bone marrow.Generally, it grows when one of these cells transforms and becomes a leukemia cell. Frequently, it breaks up to make new cells quicker than ordinary. Leukemia cells do not expire when they should. This enables them to build right up in the bone marrow, crowding out normal cells. At some stage, leukemia cells leave the bone marrow and spill into the bloodstream. Leukemia-cells can spread to other organs, where they are able to keep other cells in the entire body from working normally.

Leukemia differs from several other forms of cancer that begin in organs such as breast, colon, or the lungs and spread to the bone marrow. Cancers begin elsewhere and spread to the bone marrow is not leukemia.

Realizing the particular form of leukemia helps physicians better predict each patient’s prognosis (outlook) and choose the most effective treatment.

Causes

Radiation-exposure can raise the risk of developing CML. Radiation exposure can be from a nuclear catastrophe or from radiation treatments used before to treat thyroid cancer or Hodgkin lymphoma.

It will take many years to develop leukemia from radiation exposure. Most people treated with radiation for cancer do not develop leukemia. Most patients with CML haven ever been subjected to radiation.
CML frequently appears in middle age adults and in children.

ESSENTIAL POINTS

Chronic myelogenous leukemia is a disease where the bone marrow makes too many white blood cells.
Leukemia may change white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
Symptoms and signs of chronic myelogenous leukemia include tiredness, night sweats, and fever.

The bone is composed of compact bone, spongy bone, and bone marrow. Compact bone makes up the outside layer of the bone. Spongy bone is available mainly at the ends of bones and features red marrow. Bone marrow is located in the middle of the majority of bones and it has many blood vessels. There are two kinds of bone marrow: yellowish and red. Red marrow includes blood stem cells that may become white blood cells, red blood cells, or platelets.

Yellow marrow is created largely of fat.

Leukemia may change white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets.
A blood stem cell may become a lymphoid stem cell or a myeloid stem cell.
Red blood-cells carry oxygen and other materials to all tissues of the body.It form blood clots to stop bleeding.
Granulocytes (white blood cells) compete with illness and disease.

In CML, too many blood stem cells become a kind of white blood cell. These granulocytes are not normal and do not become healthy white blood cells. They are called as leukemia cells.

At these times, disease,anemia, or easy bleeding may happen.This summary is all about chronic myelogenous leukemia. See the following PDQ summaries to find out more about leukemia:

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia Treatment

Hairy Cell Leukemia Treatment

Symptoms and signs of chronic myelogenous leukemia include tiredness, night sweats, and fever.
These signs and other symptoms could be caused by CML or by other illnesses. Check with the physician in case a person has some of the following:

Feeling really tired
Night sweats
Temperature

Occasionally CML does not cause any symptoms whatsoever.A physical examination typically shows a swollen spleen. A complete blood count (CBC) reveals a heightened amount of white blood cells which have many immature types present and a heightened amount of platelets. These are parts.

Other tests which could be done include:

Bone marrow
Blood and bone marrow testing for the existence of the Philadelphia chromosome
Platelet count
These tests and procedures could be used:
Physical examination
Analyzes of entire body in order to check general signs of health include checking for indications of disorder such as an enlarged spleen.
The amount of platelets and red-blood cells
The amount and kind of white blood cells

Treatment:

Medications target the abnormal protein made by the Philadelphia chromosome are generally the first treatment for CML. These medications may be taken as pills.

Occasionally, if it is extremely high at analysis, chemotherapy is used to decrease the white blood cell count.
The blast crisis stage is hard to take care of. This is because there are an extremely high number of immature white blood cells (leukemia cells).

The only known treatment for CML is a bone marrow transplant or stem cell transplant. Most patients do not require a transplant as the medications are targeted successfully. Discuss the choices with the oncologist.

One might have to handle a number of other problems or matters during the leukemia treatment, including:

Handling the pets during chemotherapy
Bleeding issues
Eating enough calories if someone is ill
Targeted therapy by using a tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Splenectomy
A clinical trial of a fresh treatment
Donor stem cell transplant
Targeted therapy using a tyrosine kinase inhibitor
Tyrosine kinase inhibitor treatment stem cell transplant
High-dose chemotherapy
Chemotherapy
A clinical trial of a fresh treatment
Transfusion treatment to replace red blood cells, platelets, and at times white blood cells, to alleviate improve quality and symptoms of life.

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