Category Archives: Rheumatology and bone disease


Anticardiolipin antibodies These are found in the antiphospholipid syndrome, which is described Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) These are detected by immunofluorescence and by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) in the serum, and are of two types: 1 cANCA (cytoplasmic staining) is directed against serine proteinase C. 2 pANCA (perinuclear staining) is mainly directed against myeloperoxidas


Investigations are often unnecessary in patients with rheumatic complaints. In patients with tennis elbow, osteoarthritis and many other conditions, the diagnosis can be made on the basis of history and examination findings. There are no diagnostic tests in osteoarthritis and tests are only requested to exclude some other condition. ERYTHROCYTE SEDIMENTATION RATE (ESR) AND C-REACTIVE PROTEIN (CRP) These prov

Clinical features

HISTORY The main features are listed and some of these points are discussed below. Background information This may be helpful in assessing the type of arthritis. For example: AGE. Osteoarthritis commonly presents at 50 years of age. SEX. Rheumatoid arthritis is commoner in women, whilst Reiter’s syndrome is commoner in men. RACE. Some arthropathies are particularly associated with diseases occurring in p

Rheumatology and bone disease

RHEUMATOLOGY Introduction Rheumatology is concerned with medical disorders of the locomotor system, which can be divided into three categories: arthritis, back pain and soft-tissue rheumatism. Most of these diseases are seen worldwide, although the prevalence of individual conditions varies. Rheumatic diseases constitute about 20% of the work-load of a primary- care physician. The normal joint The structure o