Category Archives: Facial Esthetic Surgery

Hair Restoration

Hair Restoration Although predominately associated with male pattern baldness, hair restoration can also be performed on women with alopecia. With improvement of surgical techniques that avoid a “plugged” appearance, hair restoration has increased in popularity. Hair follicles are harvested from the posterior scalp below the vertex and prepared into micro- arid minigrafts of one to four hairs per g

Scar Revision

Scar Revision Facial scars can be caused by severe acne, facial trauma, or incisions needed for other surgery. Factors making scars noticeable include: hypertrophy or keloids,  uneven margins that cast shadows, color .mismatch with surrounding skin, and tethering to underlying soft tissues that accentuates the scar during facial animation.  Although a scar can never be totally eliminated, t can be altered an

Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy

Botulinum Neurotoxin Therapy Although first used for treatment of eye muscle spasms  .and eye muscle-dysfunction, botulinum neurotoxin canalso be used to reduce facial wrinkles of the forehead and the crow’s-foot· region (i.e., wrinkles emanating from the lateral canthus)’ around the eyes. Botulinum toxin is produced by the anaerobic microorganism Clostridia botulinum and is responsible for botulis

lip Augmentation orReduction

lip Augmentation or Reduction Lip augmentation can increase the thickness and vertical exposure of either the upper’ or lower lip. However, this  procedure is most commonly performed on the upper lipto accent the perioral region. Generally the lower lip is 30% larger in vertical dimension (i.e., vermilion to wetline) than the upper ‘lip. Many methods for lip augmentation are available and include im


Otoplasty Otoplasty is altering the appearance of the ears. The most common ear cupped 1his deformity can be a source of awkwardness, eSI”‘cially in school-age children. Adults may also choose otoplasty for ear deformities not addressed while they were younger. Overly prominent ears are either caused by hypertrophy of the conchal bowl cartilage (i.e., lower one half of the base) or lackof formatio

Chin Augmentation or Reduction

Chin Augmentation or Reduction Chin projection and contour influences neck definition and nasal size appearance. ‘Noses look larger if the chin is recessive and necklines are more defined with a more prominent chin, Decisions to augment or reduce the chinare decided by evaluating the facial proportions, similar to the treatment planning that takes place with orthognathic surgery or a patient undergoing c

Cheek Augmentation

Cheek Augmentation Cheek augmentation provides for higher, more defined,  prominent cheekbones and more youthful cheek fullness. Cheek augmentation is usually accomplished using a synthetic or alloplastic implant placed through a maxillaryvestibular incision. The malar or cheek implants are supplied precontoured by the manufacturers. and available in varying sizes,  hicknesses, and configurations(Fig. 26-25).

Facial Liposuction

Facial Liposuction Facial liposuction is used to reduce submental and neck fullness. These excessive fat deposits are typically located superficial to the platysma. This can be detected by having the patient “tense their neck” or attempt to move their chin inferiorly against finger resistance then gentllsping the suhmcntnl area or neck fold with the thumb and forerinucr I i.e .. pinch test). The p

Skin Resurfacing

Skin Resurfacing Skin resurfacing eliminates wrinkles, pigmentary discoloration, and slgnificantly ttghtens the skin, resulting tn a more youthful appearance. Patients may begin to notice perioral rhytids during restorative or prosthetic treatment. They may complain to their dentist that terior  prosthetic restorations do no adequately fill out theirlips. Women may remark tha their lipstick “bleeds”


Septorhinoplasty l surgery, or rhinoplasty, can alter a patient’s  appearance and correct nasal obstructive svmptorns. When the-nasal septulT!. is also ‘modified the procedure i~ called a septorhin?plasty. Appearance changes rnav include modifying the nasal profile, the nasal bridge  width, removing a dorsal hump, or improving nasal tipdefinition (Fig. 26-15 ort page 612). Patients of all ages may