Category Archives: Diseases of the blood

Prophylaxis to prevent venous thromboembolism

Prophylactic measures to prevent venous thrombosis during surgery are aimed at procedures for preventing stasis, such as early mobilization, elevation of the legs, compression stockings, and possibly calf-muscle stimulation and passive calf-muscle exercises during surgery, and methods for preventing hypercoagulability, usually using heparin. Low-risk patients (Table 6.26) require no specific measures other t

Prevention and treatment of venous thromboembolism

Venous thromboembolism is a common problem after surgery, particularly in high-risk patients such as elderly patients, those with malignant disease and those with a history of previous thrombosis. The incidence is also high in patients confined to bed following trauma, myocardial infarction or other illnesses. Prevention and treatment of venous thrombosis includes the use of anticoagulants. Anticoagulants HE


A thrombus is defined as a solid mass formed in the circulation from the constituents of the blood during life. Fragments of thrombi (emboli) may break off and block vessels downstream. Thromboembolic disease is much more common than abnormal bleeding; nearly half of adult deaths in England and Wales are due to coronary artery thrombosis, cerebral artery thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. A thrombus results f


Vitamin K deficiency Vitamin K is necessary for the v-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues on factors II, VII, IX and X and on proteins C and S; without it, these factors cannot bind calcium and form complexes with PF-3 to carry out their normal functions. Deficiency of vitamin K may be due to: • Inadequate stores, as in haemorrhagic disease of the newborn and protein-energy malnutrition • Malabsorption

Healthy Sex

Healthy Sex Assignment Help People who have sex have higher quantity of safeguards for the body against germs, viruses, and other intruder. People have to do all the other things which make their immune system joyful. Remain active. Stay educated about the vaccinations. Always remember to use condoms, if people do not comprehend the STD statuses. Fosters the Libido Lauren Streicher says that having sex is likely to

Coagulation disorders

Coagulation disorders may be inherited or acquired. The inherited disorders are uncommon and usually involve deficiency of one factor only. The acquired disorders occur more frequently and almost always involve several coagulation factors. INHERITED COAGULATION DISORDERS Deficiencies of all factors have been described. They are rare apart from haemophilia A (factor VIII deficiency), haemophilia B (factor IX d

Platelet disorders

Bleeding due to thrombocytopenia or abnormal platelet function is characterized by purpura and bleeding from mucous membranes. Bleeding is uncommon with platelet counts above 50 X 109/litre, and severe spontaneous bleeding is unusual with platelet counts above 20 X 109/litre. THROMBOCYTOPENIA This is caused by reduced platelet production in the bone marrow or excessive peripheral destruction of platelets. A b

Vascular disorders

The vascular disorders , sometimes previously classified as non-thrombocytopenic purpuras, are characterized by easy bruising and bleeding into the skin. Bleeding from mucous membranes sometimes occurs but the bleeding is rarely severe. Laboratory investigations including the bleeding time are normal. The vascular disorders include the following. Vascular disorders. HEREDITARY HAEMORRHAGIC TELANGIECTASIA. This

Investigation of bleeding disorders

Although the  precise diagnosis of a bleeding disorder may depend on laboratory tests, much information may be obtained from  the history and physical examination, which should   aim to determine the following: 1 Is there ageneralized haemostatic defect? Supportive evidence for this includes bleeding from multiple sites, spontaneous bleeding and bleeding into the skin. 2 Is the feet inherited or acquired? A

Bleeding disorders

Blood is normally separated from the activators of haemostasis by the endothelial cell. Injury to the vessel wall exposes collagen and sets in motion a series of events leading to haemostasis. Haemostasis Haemostasis is a complex process depending on interactions between the vessel wall, platelets and coagulation factors. Vessel wall An immediate reflex vasoconstriction of the injured vessel and adjacent vess