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Same of the newer devices and materials have enhanced 1,cases, improved surgical procedures. These include the light and magnification devicesand techniqucs of guided tissue regeneration. Light and  agnification Devices microscope. Relatively recently the microscop has been adapted and used for surgery, .as well as for otherdiagnostic and treatment procedures in endodontics (Fig 17-O).11 Advantages of the microscope include magniflcationand in-line illumination. They also can be adaptedfor videotaping and to transmit the image to a televisionmonitor for direct viewing or recording. These enhancethe view of the surgical field, help identify previouslyundetected structures, and facilitate surgical procedures.Although some clinicians advocate and an! excited aboutthe use of these microscopes, as yet there have not beendemonstrated substantial clinical benefits through longtermcontrolled studies. However, some evidence suggeststhat the microscope use improves on surgical techniques -and short-term outcomes.

FIG. 17-29 Healing by scar tissue. A, Failed treatment because of transportation and perforation, leaving area of canal (arrow) un debrided and unobturated. B, Root end resection, curettage, and root end f!lIing. C, After 2 years, an area of raololucency is seen. Sharp border, separation from apex, and distinct radiolucency show this to be a scar.

FIG. 17-29 Healing by scar tissue. A, Failed treatment because of transportation and perforation,
leaving area of canal (arrow) un debrided and unobturated. B, Root end resection, curettage, and root
end f!lIing. C, After 2 years, an area of raololucency is seen. Sharp border, separation from apex, and
distinct radiolucency show this to be a scar.

FIG. 17-30 SUlylCal rn.crosr ope has been adapted for endodontic procedures, including surgery. Magnification and in-line illumina- . tion enhance visualizauon for diagnosis and treatment. Add-on binoculars for dental assistant are useful adjunct.

FIG. 17-30 SUlylCal rn.crosr ope has been adapted for endodontic
procedures, including surgery. Magnification and in-line illumina-
. tion enhance visualizauon for diagnosis and treatment. Add-on
binoculars for dental assistant are useful adjunct.

connected to a monitor that permits visualization of precise else details of the surgical site.12 This system also. gives the clinician the option of videotaping and recording procedures.

Bone Augmentation
Various substances have been placed in the periradicular surgical cavities in the attempt to enhance bony healing .Because of the location of the cavity, and because most of the periphery is encased in hone or periosteum, bone regeneration is predictable. Such augmentation materials
are of no benefit. and should not be placed.

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