Actinomycosis is a relatively uncommon infection of the soft tissues of the jaws. It is usually caused by Actinomyces israelii but may also be caused by A. naeslundii or A. viscosus. Actinomyces is an endogenous bacterium of the oral cavity that was once thought to be an anaerobic fungus. However, it has now been clearly established that actinomycetes are anaerobic bacteria.
In summary, actinomycosis is an indolent infection that tends to erode through tissues rather than follow typical fascial planes and spaces. It is difficult to eradicate using short-term antibiotic regimens. Therefore IkD of
any accumulation of pus and excision of chronic sinus tracts must be accoinplished. Finally .high-dose antibiotic administration is recommended for initial control of the infection, with long-term antibiotic therapy to prevent recurrence of actinomycosis.